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九月.201129
文章编辑: 可视编辑
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All cartridge filters are good, Some are better!

Filtering cartridges are very common products used in many industrial processes to clarify/decontaminate a broad variety of liquids (beverage, pharmaceutics, chemicals, paints, varnishes, blood, drinking water,…) and on as many types of machines (aircrafts, engines, boats, fluid power systems, road and off-road vehicles, machine tools,…).

If efficient, all filtering cartridges, whatever their type, clog, what means their differential pressure increases and/or flowrate decays. Then they cannot fulfil their function correctly and need being replaced. This creates a huge market of renewable products with plenty of suppliers offering very diverse cartridges.
 
Criteria to choose a cartridge and its supplier rather than another one strongly depend on its application. But in all cases, the key criterion is filtration efficiency. another one possibly being retention capacity.
 
Filtration efficiency guarantees the quality of the filtered liquid. It is specified/expressed by a percentage of efficiency in percent or a filtration ratio (e.g. ß) at a given particle size or by a rating, i.e. a particle size supposed to correspond to a given, often not claimed, efficiency.
 
Since the efficiency measurement method, equipment and products directly impact the values of efficiency, many professional sectors, including filter cartridge manufacturers and their end users agree on standard methods, often a compromise between technical and cost requirements, such as ASTM, NFPA, SAE or ISO standards.
 
All standard procedures allow variations of different details, e.g. accuracy of measuring instruments, variations in test conditions, type of equipment, validation criteria, etc. This means that performances claimed according to any standard by any manufacturer may not be comparable to those claimed by a competitor for the same application.
 
Thus only independent third party testing centre results can really be trusted when evaluating competing products.

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八月.201122
文章编辑: 可视编辑
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过滤器和滤材的DNA

Figure 1: Before and after a collapse test当你使用固液分离或者液液分离过滤器来服务于挑剔的工况以确保质量和重复性的时候。是否能够有效地过滤掉可能损坏设备的杂质颗粒或者是否从燃油里去除水分以延长系统服务时间是非常重要的,不恰当的过滤器器设计和滤材的选择将可能导致灾难性的失效。

过滤器有特定的“DNA”这个概念或许听起来比较奇怪,但正如脱氧核糖核酸(“DNA”)定义了人体的特性,过滤器也存在着可以定义其最终性能表现的“DNA”。过滤器被用作分离各种不同种类的颗粒和液体。对于过滤器来说,其效果和效率可在最终为应用于真实工况而进行生产改进前,在实验室内进行测试。例如,绝大部分过滤器和滤材有一个可测得的“临界点”压力值,这个点就是当捕获的杂质被释放到下游的那点。正确的测试可以找到样品的“临界点”。这些逃离出来的杂质可腐蚀或破坏下游的引擎,可能将碎屑带到食品或饮料里,或卡住机械系统零部件。即便在下游杂质增加到破坏临界点之前,由于压力的改变或其他外部环境的原因,还是会导致系统被损坏。每个过滤器都有自己的属性,检查这些属性你需要考虑多种不同的测试来定义一个过滤器的“DNA”。
 
检测一个过滤器的“DNA”远不止简单的初始效率,名义孔径流量或泡点测试技术。当然这些是个良好的开始,“DNA”测试包括更全面的测试,前面提到的几个项目只是过滤器性能的一小部分细节。要想更多地了解一款过滤器,最基本的是要知道它在什么情况下表现最好,在什么情况下表现最差。“DNA”测试使用国际标准作为测试依据以保证试验结果的可重复性并允许与其他过滤器及其应用进行逐个比较。
 
一个过滤器的“DNA”依据其应用过程由多种不同的测试结果组成。
 
可帮助构成过滤器DNA的测试包括:
Anchor
八月.201121
文章编辑: 可视编辑
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The “DNA” of Your Filter and Filter Media

When used in solid-liquid and liquid-liquid separation applications filters serve a critical function to ensure process quality and repeatability. Whether it could remove the particulates that can damage equipment or remove water from fuel to extend system service life is very important. Improper filter design and filter media selection can result in catastrophic failure.
 
The concept that filters have a specific "DNA" may seem odd but just as Deoxyribonucleic Acid ("DNA') defines the nature of the human body, there is a "DNA" associated with a filter that defines how it will perform. Filters are used to separate many different particles and liquids. The effectiveness and efficiency of filters can be determined by laboratory testing before expensive plant modifications are made for real world use. For instance, most filters and filter media have an "unloading point" that is a measureable differential pressure at which filters release trapped contaminants downstream. The correct testing can find these "unloading points". These released downstream particulates can erode or ruin an engine, cause scrap in food and beverage processing, or may even seize mechanical system components. Even before the burst point where the particulates downstream increase, due to change in pressure or other external conditions, can still destroy the system. Each filter has its own attributes and to determine them you need to consider multiple tests to define the "DNA" of a filter.
 
The testing to determine the "DNA" of a filter is much more inclusive than simple initial efficiency, mean pore flow or bubble point testing techniques. While these provide a good starting point, “DNA” testing is more holistic than the above-mentioned tests that provide only one small detail about the filter. The idea of knowing more about a filter is essential in determining where the filter would perform the best and where it will perform the worst. “DNA” tests using international standards provide results that are repeatable and allow “apple to apple” comparison with other filters and their applications.
 
The “DNA” of a filter is formed from the results of various tests depending on the process application.
 
The tests that help form the “DNA” of the filter include:
Anchor
八月.20111
文章编辑: 可视编辑
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How Do Smart Manufacturers Prove Their Product Is Better Than the Competition’s and save Testing cost?

Filter is a consumable product which needs replacing termly, the market is huge; the competition is very fierce. Almost each filter manufacturer has many competitors in different application fields. Undoubtedly, each filter manufacturer hopes to gain more business by proving to the customer that their own products have better cost performance than their competitor(s).

Analyse the performance of competitor’s product, compare with their own product and the customers’ requirement is the most common strategy. Many filter manufacturers invest their own test lab that has the capability of facing to the OEM customers; they buy testing equipments for research & development works and the analysis of competitors. During the certificating process by the OEM customers (filter users), test ability is an indispensable part.

But, there have so many testing items for a filter. No one could equip all the test equipments. And there also exist the risk to the filter manufacturer when they developing new OEM customer, they need to prove to the customer their lab is capable and trustable. A smart filter manufacturer will evaluate the quantity of each test item instead of invest the test equipments blindly; Even they have the test ability for a test item, some manufacturers prefer to choose presenting test report by the third party lab, it is helpful to impress the customer and shows the ability of themselves. 

IFTS founded in 1981, it is a fully independent and professional liquid filter testing organization; Acting as the Europe filter testing centre and the world reference lab, IFTS is in service to hundreds of the customers around the world. Filter manufacturers use IFTS’s third party testing report to prove the performance of their product(s) to the customer, the filter users use IFTS’s services for monitoring the performance of the suppliers. There have some successful stories that the manufacturers gained the good business without investing the test equipments.

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八月.20111
文章编辑: 可视编辑
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聪明的滤清器制造商如何证明他们的产品比竞争对手的更好并且节约试验费用?

  滤清器是一种需要定期更换的易耗品,市场需求量非常巨大,竞争也非常激烈。几乎每家制造商在不同的领域都有很多竞争对手。毫无疑问,每个厂家当然都希望证明自己的产品比其竞争对手的产品具备更高的性价比,以实现提高销量的最终目的。

  分析竞争对手的产品性能,与自己的产品以及客户的需求进行比对,这是很常用的策略。很多有实力进入主机配套市场的生产商纷纷投资建设自己的实验室,为自己产品的研发、分析竞争对手采购测试设备。而主机厂商认可滤清器生产商的过程中,测试能力的评估是必不可少的环节。

  然而,滤清器的测试项目繁多,任何一个生产商都不可能配齐所有的测试设备。而且,对于新开发的主机厂客户,生产商也面临一个说服客户相信自己测试能力和测试数据的问题。聪明的滤清器制造商会评估自己对于每个检测项目一年的需求量,而不是盲目地投资测试设备;而且即便自己有测试能力,对于一些新开发的主机厂客户,聪明的制造商会选择第三方测试,这对于增加自己在潜在客户心目中的印象分大有帮助。

  IFTS 作为一家成立于1981年的专业第三方液体滤清器测试机构,作为欧洲过滤测试中心和世界参考级实验室,为全球数百家客户提供独立的测试服务。制造商客户通过IFTS的检测报告来向他们的客户证明自己产品的性能,而主机厂客户则通过IFTS的检测报告来监督供应商的质量。不论是滤清器产品的用户还是制造商都能从中获益。一些初期尚不具备某项目测试能力的生产商利用IFTS的资源,在不投资检测设备的情况下依旧获得了可观的订单。

Anchor
七月.201112
文章编辑: 可视编辑
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ISO/TR 13353(1994)标准已不再有效

  近来,我们接到不少中国客户关于依据ISO/TR 13353(1994)标准对燃油滤清器进行性能测试的咨询,他们希望我们依据这个标准来进行试验。

  ISO/TR 13353(1994) 是一个旧的标准,早在2002年8月29日就已经撤销了。我们向这些客户解释:我们IFTS还有一些可用的ACFTD,我们可以将测试得到的µm(c)转换成µm,这也是我们可以使用这个旧标准做测试的原因。

  这些国内的客户说是他们的客户(即滤清器用户)要求他们使用这个标准进行燃滤性能测试。

  本文将介绍这个燃油滤清器性能测试标准的升级。以期帮助广大滤清器用户和滤清器制造商了解这个标准的背景。

  在1994年,IFTS创建起草了ISO TR 13353标准用来评估燃油滤清器的过滤效率和容灰量,BOSCH接受并使用了该标准。ISO TR 13353 (1994) 分为两个部分:第一部分是用于评估滤清器的初始效率(单次通过循环,5mg/L 的ACFTD ——过滤效率表述为多少µm的粒子效率是多少;第二部分是用于评估滤清器的容灰量(多次通过循环,50mg/L 的ACFTD,终止条件为压差上升70kPa)

  自从1999年起,ACFTD已经不再生产;被ISO MTD取代。而且颗粒计数器的标定标准也由ISO 4402(1991)升级到了ISO 11171(1999)。延伸阅读:试验粉尘的历史(英文版中文版);

  ISO/TS 13353(2002)是作为评估初始效率的标准而被重新审核评估的(使用上游杂质浓度 5mg/L 的ISO MTD,单次通过——过滤效率表述为多少µm (c)的粒子的过滤效率是多少。

ISO 19438 (03)被用于评估滤清器的效率和容灰量的评估,使用的是50mg/L ISO MTD,使用在线稀释系统便于颗粒计数——过滤效率表述为多少µm (c)的粒子的过滤效率是多少。

  也就是说,现如今,ISO/TR 13353(1994) 已经无效,被ISO 19438(2003)所取代。

  于2004年进行的全球比对试验证明了在初始效率测试方面,使用ISO TS 13353 (02) 或 ISO 19438 (03)获得的结果是相似的。通常来说,包括BOSCH在内的燃油滤清器用户(或发动机主机厂)应该已经有了接受ISO 19438的规范。

  上述所有的标准替代,您均可通过在ISO官方网站上查询标准号来找到替换记录,比如下图中用红色圈出的部分显示了ISO/TS 13353(2002)曾替代了ISO/TR 13353(1994),并被ISO 19438(2003)替代。

关于新旧颗粒尺寸读取及转换,我们推荐您购买ISO/TR 16386(1999)阅读了解。

Anchor
七月.201112
文章编辑: 可视编辑
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ISO/TR 13353:1994 is no longer available

Recently, we have got some inquires for fuel filter testing according to ISO/TR 13353(1994) from the customers in China, they asked us to run test for them according to this standard.

 
ISO/TR 13353(1994) is an old test standard which has already been withdrew on August 29th of 2002. We explained that we have some more ACFTD available by IFTS and we can correlate from µm(c) to µm. That is the reason why we can work according to this old standard.
 
These Chinese customer told us their customers (the filter end users) ask them to use this standard to test the fuel filter.
 
This article introduces the upgrading of this testing standard for diesel fuel filters. Try to help filter users and filter manufacturers to understand the background of this testing standard.
 
 
ISO/TR 13353(1994) was founded by IFTS and accepted by BOSCH in 1994. It is in order to qualify the filtration efficiency and the retention capacity of fuel filters. This procedure is divided in two parts: a first one is dedicated with the determination of the initial filtration efficiency (singlepass circulation at 5 mg/L of ACFTD – expression of the filtration ratings in µm); The second one is dedicated with the determination of the retention capacity (multipass recirculation at 50 mg/L of ACFTD up to an increase of DP of 70 kPa).
 
Since 1999, the ACFTD no more available ; it has been replaced by ISO MTD and the calibration for the APC (automatic particle counter) has been upgraded: the ISO 4402(1991) has been revised by the ISO 11171(1999). About dust history, please read here.
 
ISO/TS 13353(2002) has been reviewed and is only dealing with the determination of the initial filtration efficiency (according to a BUGL of 5 mg/L of ISO MTD in a single pass way – expression of the filtration ratings in µm(c) ).
 
ISO 19438 (2003) has been standardised for determining both the filtration efficiency and the retention capacity with working in a multipass recirculation with a BUGL of 50 mg/L of ISO MTD and on line dilution concerning particle counting – expression of the filtration ratings in µm(c) ).
 
That is to say, nowadays, ISO/TR 13353 (1994) is no more available. Has been replaced by ISO 19438(2003).
 
Last round robin tests in 2004 have proven that the determination of the initial filtration efficiency is similar whatever using ISO/TS 13353 (2002) or ISO 19438 (2003). Normally, including BOSCH, the fuel filter users should make the specification with using ISO 19438 procedure.
 
All above standards’ upgrading, you could find records on the official ISO website. For example, you could find the revision information for ISO/TS 13353(2002) in below image, it revised ISO/TR 13353(1994) and has been revised by ISO 19438:

 

For more detailed historical background, we suggest you to refer to ISO/TR 16386(1999).

Anchor
七月.201112
文章编辑: 可视编辑
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How to Optimize the Choice of Filtering Media

SUMMARY

Liquid filter media all have the same role of letting the liquid flow through whilst retaining a part if not all particles in suspension. Liquid filtration occurs in a very broad variety of processes and equipments, from engines fuel or lubricating oil to drinking water through chemicals, blood or varnishes.

Depending on the type of filter used, filtering media are of made of layers of grains (sand or diatomites) or of fibers, which can be wound or processed or papers.

The variety of techniques, processes and liquids they are applied to create a broad spectrum of technical requirements and properties. Tests are developed to evaluate these properties in accelerated conditions, cheaper and much faster than actual operation ones.

The lecture will present an overview of the characteristics of filter media (from granular ones to sterilizing membranes) classified in four families: intrinsical relating to the internal structure of the porous media, hydraulic which cover the impact of the media on the fluid flow, performances, i.e. how the media retains particles or undesirable substances and the impact of their retention on both the permeability and the efficiency and compatibilities, including all “negative” interactions between the media material and the filtered fluid.

Main test procedures (especially standard ones) will be summarised. A brief presentation will be made of their principles, of the equipments and products used, of the criteria of validation of test benches.

The way raw data have to be processed to obtain standard test report will be explained and typical interpretation of data oriented toward the optimisation of the choice of filtering media will be given.

By: Christophe PEUCHOT, Managing Director

Translate by: Zhigang WU, Asian Market Manager

Read the Chinese version of this article

Anchor
七月.201112
文章编辑: 可视编辑
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如何优化液体过滤应用的滤材选择

介绍

  过滤在工业品中以及使用液体作为机器能量来源或辅助工具是最广泛的应用之一。
 
  除了诸如离心,沉降,浮选旋流等固液分离技术外,过滤是最通用的一种。不论设备和操作原理多么不尽相同,也不论分离的范围如何:如从固液混合物中分离固体,或是给液体设定一个净化度或制定的固体悬浮物浓度等,绝大部分的问题都可以通过过滤器来解决。
 
  过滤器的滤材担负着关键角色。为了要满足分离过程和技术的需求,各种各样的滤材被开发出来。如何选择滤材是一个困难的任务:首先,过滤的需求有时并未被过滤器的用户所清晰地定义出来,这就意味着滤材用户有时根本就不知道客户的需求;其次,由于技术和资金的原因,已有的不同滤材在各种不同的特定环境的下的能力也很难被测定。
 
  一些试验因此会在实验室环境下开展,以尽可能真实地模拟真实工况,并量化滤材的属性及其将要实现的功能的关系。
 
  各个专业组织创建自己的测试方法和标准是一种对滤材性能的简化和澄清的方法。具体请点击本文标题,阅读全文;

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